The traditional product of the Mediterranean, olive, is the name of a millennium long culture… And the olive tree has a history of almost 40 thousand years. Anatolia comes to the fore as one of the most vital centres of the olive culture throughout history. In other words, Anatolia and particularly the Aegean coasts are the motherland of the olive…
Turks started taking an interest in cultivating and producing olive and olive oil in the 11th century when they set foot in Anatolia. They produced olive oil in presses, which are also known as mills. In the law books of the Ottoman Empire the production, taxing and marketing of olive oil was regulated with certain provisions. Most of the olive oil particularly obtained in the Aegean region, whereby Ayvalık being the most important production centre, was provided to Istanbul.
“If Anatolia is the motherland of the olive, then Aegean coast is its capital” would not be a statement of exaggeration. This was actually a fact both before and also after the exchange of populations as most of the refugees had experience about olive production.
This olive tree is a kind that renews itself… However it grows gradually and requires effort. The olive tree starts producing harvest only after 10 years of plantation and has a long life. Its height can shoot up to 10 metres. It enjoys calcareous, gravelly, pebbly and arid soil. Olive tree does not complain about the heat of the summer and prefers warm winters. It enjoys light and is a friend of the sun.
Olive trees start blossoming around mid May while blossoms turn into buds at the beginning of June. In July buds grow into olives which then ripen as green olives. August is the month during which the kernel hardens and the grain becomes larger. Eventually the harvest starts in October and continues for a few months.
The methods of plucking olives have rarely changed throughout thousands of years; it is either hand plucking or shaking. Mostly the shaking method is preferred.
Olives have to be processed in the shortest time possible after harvest in order to obtain quality olive oil. If kept waiting the olive becomes fermented thus reducing the quality of olive oil.
The acidity of olive oil is actually the quantity of oleic acid within the oil. If, for instance, the acidity level is 1% then there is 1 gram of oleic acid in 100 grams of oil. The acidity level determines the quality of oil.
The characteristics of the olive tree, the region where olives grow, the climatic conditions and soil features of this region all make the taste of the unique Aegean olive oil so special..
The Ionian city, Klazomenai, which emerged 3000 years ago in the western part of Turkey, was known for its economic prosperity based on olive oil production. The remains of Klazomenai lie on the southern shore of the Gulf of Izmir in the Aegean Sea, in the fields of the town of Urla; a region which Herodotus called truly blessed with a perfect Mediterranean climate. Excavations in this region revealed the earliest known olive processing plant, demonstrating the importance of Anatolia in the development of olive cultivation and technology. This was the first time that archaeologists had discovered a complete olive oil plant, which had operated at a substantial production capacity. Continuous production by means of a three-com- partment oil separation system was first performed here, showing that Klazomenai had possessed technology far ahead of its contemporaries. In addition, excavations showed that olive oil production was one of the main activities in the city and became an important trade commodity for the Klazomenians in the second half of the sixth century B.C. After the excavations of Klazomenai were completed in 2002, the unearthed ancient olive oil plant was restored to its original state in two years. Then, this centuries-old olive oil plant of Anatolia began to work again, and after 3000 years the first olive oil was obtained at the initial production trial on 10 November 2004.